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These differences in body composition are often thought to be due to differences in sex steroids and primarily testosterone. When testosterone is given exogenously in pharmacologic doses, it promotes the building of muscle or anabolism Bhasin et al. Testosterone is thought to exert its anabolic effect through post-transcriptional mechanisms that stimulate MPS Ferrando et al. There are, however, data suggesting that testosterone may inhibit muscle protein breakdown Ferrando et al.
In rodents, the administration of female sex steroids lowers MPS and thus may inhibit muscle growth Toth et al. What is unclear, at least Down to fuck in sendeni humans, is whether male or female sex steroids within a normal physiological range exert an effect on muscle protein turnover. The purpose of this review is to summarize the state of our knowledge on sex-based differences in muscle protein turnover in response to both feeding and contraction. For example, Fujita et al. The same authors Fujita et al. Interestingly, and contrary to the supposition that testosterone may exert an anabolic effect, there may actually be a higher rate of MPS in women particularly as they age Henderson et al.
These results are summarized in Figure 1. Estrogen changes more than two-fold and progesterone changes by fold across the cycle. The early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is characterized by both low estrogen and progesterone, but during this phase estrogen increases, peaking at or near ovulation, whereas progesterone increases sharply in the luteal phase of the cycle. Nonetheless, despite marked variations in estrogen and progesterone, there are no differences in basal protein synthesis of either myofibrillar or connective tissue protein between the menstrual cycle phases Miller et al.
Interestingly, the use of oral contraceptives may lower basal MPS Hansen et al. However, it does not appear that long-term oral contraceptive use has a markedly negative influence on the adaptive responses to exercise in terms of performance Rechichi et al. This stimulation appears to be due in Down to fuck in sendeni to an insulin-mediated increase in muscle blood flow Fujita et al. A key amino acid in stimulating MPS is leucine Crozier et al. In comparisons of men and women, there appears to be little difference between how younger men and women respond to hyperaminoacidemia and hyperinsulinemia Smith et al.
In contrast, with aging, the elevated basal MPS described in elderly women Henderson et al. While younger and older men have similar rates of MPS, the feeding-induced increase in MPS was found to be less in older men Smith et al. However, this is not something that is universally observed as a number of studies have shown equivalent and robust stimulation of MPS with protein feeding in young and older men Kiskini et al. One possibility for the discrepant findings of protein-induced stimulation of MPS is that the selection of active vs.
For example, periodic reductions in physical activity can reduce the MPS response to feeding and these responses are more common in older persons Breen et al. Interestingly, even mild physical activity can restore the sensitivity of MPS to protein feeding in older adults Fujita et al. The mechanism for stimulating MPS is still elusive but involves some form of mechanical events that link to and turn on the initiation of translation making new protein Frey et al. The few comparisons of exercise-induced responses in MPS in men and women have reported no differences between the sexes. For example, West et al. However, there were MPS response differences between the sexes in older adults who were engaging in a resistance training program, but it appeared to be a function of their baseline MPS rates Smith et al.
In this study, MPS both during basal postabsorptive conditions and during mixed meal intake was measured before and after three months of exercise training in obese, y old men and women. At the beginning of the study before training the basal, postabsorptive MPS rate was significantly greater in women than in men, whereas the meal-induced increase in MPS was greater in men than in women Smith et al. It is possible that larger volumes of resistance exercise are required to initiate a robust stimulation of MPS in older persons vs. When older men completed a greater volume twice as much of resistance exercise, however, this lower MPS response in older men Kumar et al.
They reported that the men experienced small but significantly 2. Despite greater absolute gains in men, relative increases in strength measures were actually greater in women vs. Findings from other studies align with the general conclusion that if there are differences between men and women in resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass they are relatively small or non-existent Abe et al. Thus young women have the capacity to hypertrophy their muscle fibers in response to resistance training Staron et al. This is consistent with the notion that local, rather than circulating systemic androgen hormone, mechanisms are dominant in promoting increases in MPS and fiber hypertrophy West et al.
An encouraging aspect of resistance training is that older men and women also retain the capacity to hypertrophy and gain strength and these responses appear to be of similar relative extent Kosek et al. Nonetheless, some studies have been conducted in which men and women have been compared and have shown, in general, that women rely less on protein as a substrate during aerobic exercise than their matched male counterparts Lamont et al. A single study suggests that across the menstrual cycle there are relatively small changes in protein kinetics showing a potentially greater utilization of protein during the luteal phase with exercise Lamont et al.
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However, the differences seen were based on estimates of sweat and urinary urea ln excretion with no insight into kinetic measures. Moreover, the differences, while zendeni, were small, indicating that acute differences in estrogen and progesterone do not appear to Down to fuck in sendeni a tremendous influence on the use of protein during exercise Ij et al. Remarkably, muscle protein turnover rates in the basal state, when protein kinetic rates are normalized to lean mass, are virtually identical fuckk men and women Fujita et al. With ufck, and likely as a consequence of menopause, older women show an elevated rate of MPS compared to men and are refractory to the effects of feeding, to which older men show a relatively robust response.
Despite large differences in sex steroid concentrations there is scant evidence to suggest that women, young or old, exhibit a markedly divergent response Down to fuck in sendeni resistance exercise training in terms of relative hypertrophy or strength gains. While there is evidence that women do rely slightly less on protein oxidation during aerobic work these differences are small and likely a function of lean body mass. Young men have only slightly greater hypertrophic increased muscle fiber size responses to resistance training than young women and the relative gains in strength are similar or favor younger women.
Older women have elevated basal rates of protein synthesis compared to older men and they do not exhibit as robust a response to feeding as do older men; the reasons for these differences remain unknown. While older men and women have never been directly compared as to MPS responses to resistance exercise, results from resistance training studies show relatively similar degrees of hypertrophy and strength gains. While young women appear to oxidize less protein during endurance exercise than do young men this difference is small and appears related to differences in lean body mass.
Figure Legend Figure 1. Time course for strength and muscle thickness changes following upper and lower body resistance training in men and women. Dyce head it fucken crowded. Yeah, it fun scene. If you like fucken standen room only. Dyce you need fucken upspec! Yeah yeah No fence nuttin but me checkin out. Tb0 Shit man don be no dirty stoppa Dyce spect but me checken out Where to go? Proxim flash up rentbodies. Not arsed with choosen, just want checkout. Manaus tips the round. Partynav deprecated; hell, proxim deprecated. Dyce port fucken snake, Peripet aquabot. Cerro matched pair on me b-fly.
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